Condorcet was an optimist, believing that the lives of people in general could be improved. He would take a leading role in the French Revolution from its beginning inhoping for a rational reconstruction of society.
The school was reputed to be very progressive and attracted students from across France. He wrote an essay titled "Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness and Decline of the Romans," which described Rome as the product of social, political and geographic conditions.
He said that Asian countries tended toward despotism due to intemperate climates.
John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison were very familiar with the work, and many critics suggest that it was powerful influence on the American Constitution.
He founded an anti-slavery organization, the Society of the Friends of the Blacks. This official recognition of his talent might have caused him to remain in Paris to enjoy it. Voltaire was awed by the grandness of the cosmos and saw the cosmos moved by immutable laws that could not be altered by prayer.
Montesquieu believed that where government was more liberal and where people thought independently, society would be less devoted to religious ritual and more devoted to morality. In he was admitted to the French Academy. He also thought human qualities were determined by climate and the nature of soil.
But independence of thought prevailed and the book was a success, going into 22 editions. It carried a stipend but was no sinecure.
He was for action rather than what the well-to-do called reason. In it he described the invention of private property as a fateful moment in human history. The work reflected his extensive reading and research in Latin sources and revealed a new seriousness in his writings.
Science and virtue, he wrote, were incompatible. In he was elected to the French Royal Academy of Sciences. He attacked the idea of original sin, wondering why children should be punished for the sins of their first father, Adam.
By the work had been translated into several other European languages, although bydue to allegations of heresy, the work was placed on the Papal Index of Prohibited Books. Although he was an aristocratic philosophe of the French Enlightenment, Montesquieu will likely be best remembered for his tremendous impact on the development of constitutional government, particularly that of the United States—a country that did not exist at the time of his death.
The masses, he believed, were moved too much by emotion and too little by reason. Because the satire and criticism found within The Persian Letters is largely symbolic, many critics have suggested that Montesquieu intended additional targets.
Physics, he said, had risen from vain curiosity. The government banned the book, and the Church placed the book on its index of forbidden books and threatened excommunication on all who read or bought it. Subtle and good-humoured, but forceful and incisive, this was the most brilliantly written of all his works.
A crucial focus of the book is the definition of the three forms of government—the democratic republic, the monarchy, and the despotic state—taken in large part from the observations he made during his travels.
He became an honorary member of many foreign academies and philosophical societies in Sweden, Germany, Russia and the United States. Educated first at home and then in the village, he was sent away to school in His treatment of three was particularly memorable.
In other words, he was a republican.
In the s, Diderot wrote an article on the Tahitians, drawing from a description written by the French explorer Louis Bougainville, who had visited Tahiti for ten days.
His doctrine of the separation of powers was a cornerstone of the American Constitution and a significant contribution to political philosophy. But Rousseau believed in a personal god, in divine providence and the immortality of the soul. The Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote from London that the work would win the admiration of all the ages; an Italian friend spoke of reading it in an ecstasy of admiration; the Swiss scientist Charles Bonnet said that Montesquieu had discovered the laws of the intellectual world as Newton had those of the physical world.
Letters and the arts, he claimed, were the worst enemies of morals, for they created wants. In France the authorities ignored him, and he died the following year, at the age of sixty-six.Montesquieu and Voltaire were two very major Enlightenment figures whose beliefs had a huge impact on the French Revolution.
The ever-growing middle class of France had begun to have access to and absorb some writings and ideas of philosophes like Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot. Montesquieu admired England's John Locke – the famous liberal and empiricist of a preceding generation. And he was influenced by Newton's physics and believed in a god that had made the laws that governed the physical world.
What Were Montesquieu's Major Contributions? A: Quick Answer. Montesquieu, also known as Charles-Louis de Secondat, was a major contributor to the framing of the U.S. Constitution. Voltaire's contributions to Enlightenment philosophy were primarily in the form of the popularization of British ideals amongst French intellectuals and hi.
What specific contributions did Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot make to the age of the Enlightenment - Essay Example Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist.
Montesquieu: Montesquieu was a French philosopher who made major contributions to political theory. ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.
Start Your Free Trial (so that only his own copy is extant), he was occupied with an essay on the English constitution (not published untilwhen it became part of his major work). Home Essays What specific contributions What specific contributions did Montesquieu, Voltaire and Diderot make to the age of Enlightenment?
Contrast their political ideas with that of Thomas Hobbes.Download