Henry tried to stop the unrest by imprisoning Magnus, the duke of Saxony, and by depriving the widely respected Otto of Bavaria of his duchy, after having unjustly accused him of plotting the murder of the king At a synod in Marchhe prohibited investiture, excommunicated and dethroned Henry again, and recognized Rudolf.
Then a rebellion broke out among the Saxonswhich in spread so The lecture of henry iv that Henry had to escape to Worms. To prepare for the crusade, he forbade all feuds among the great nobles of the empire for four years Yet, Canossa meant a change. She turned over the duchy of Bavaria, which Henry III had given to his son into the Saxon count Otto of Nordheimthus depriving the king of an important foundation of his power.
At Easterthe boy was baptized after the German princes had taken an oath of fidelity and obedience at Christmas Henry V feared a controversy with the princes.
See Article History Alternative Title: But since she did not give effective support to Honorius, Alexander was able to prevail. The relations between church and state were changed forever. The reasons for that act of excommunication were not as valid as those advanced inand many nobles who had so far favoured the pope turned against The lecture of henry iv because they thought the prohibition of investiture infringed upon their rights as patrons of churches and monasteries.
His last years were spent countering the rebellion of his sons Conrad and Henry the future Henry V. At the same time, he was faced with domestic difficulties that were to harass him throughout his reign. In addition, his love of power, typical of all the rulers of his dynasty, contributed to conduct often characterized by recklessness and indiscretion.
But peace with the pope, which was necessary for a complete consolidation of authority, was a goal that remained unattainable. Their independence soon became apparent in the elections of Stephen IX and Nicholas IIwhich were not influenced as under Henry III by the German court; in the new procedure for the election of the popes ; and in the defensive alliance with the Normans in southern Italy.
He received support from the peasants and citizens of those duchies, whereas Rudolf relied mainly on the Saxons. But Henry secretly travelled to northern Italy and in Canossa did penance before Gregory VII, whereupon he was readmitted to the church. The selfishness of his tutors, the dissolute character of his companions, and the traumatic experience of his kidnapping had produced a lack of moral stability during his years of puberty.
By that impulsive reaction he turned the problem of investiture in Milan, which could have been solved by negotiations, into a fundamental dispute on the relations between church and state. It was only by promising to seek absolution from the ban within a year that Henry could reach a postponement of the election.
That alliance was necessary for the popes as an effective protection against the Romans and was not directed against the German king. On her own, and without the benefit of the advice of a permanent group of counsellorsshe readily yielded to various influences.
The Saxons now made peace with him. The emperor escaped to Cologne, but when he went to Mainz his son imprisoned him and on December 31,extorted his apparently voluntary abdication.
Further, Henry replaced bishops who did not join Clement with others loyal to the king. His body was transferred to Speyer but remained there in an unconsecrated chapel before being buried in the family vault in It also forced the princes at Christmas to confirm on oath the succession of his one-year-old son, Conrad.
When Henry countered by having his own nominee consecrated by the Lombard bishops, Alexander II excommunicated the bishops.
After negotiations with Welf IV, the new duke as Welf I of Bavaria, and with Rudolf, the duke of Swabia, Henry was forced to grant immunity to the rebels in and had to agree to the razing of the royal Harz Castle in the final peace treaty in February The death of the emperor also marked the disruption of German influence in Italy and of the close relationship between the king and the reform popes.
His friends praised him as a pious, gentle, and intelligent ruler, a patron of the arts and sciences, who surrounded himself with religious scholars and who, in his sense of law and justicewas the embodiment of the ideal king. The emperor found himself cut off from Germany and besieged in a corner of northeastern Italy.
But after defeating the Saxons, Henry considered himself strong enough to cancel his agreements with the pope and to nominate his court chaplain as archbishop of Milan. Many bishops who had taken part in the Worms assembly and had subsequently been excommunicated now surrendered to the pope, and immediately the king was also faced with the newly aroused opposition of the nobility.
In he was crowned king in Aix-la-Chapelle modern Aachenin Germanyand the following year he became engaged to Bertha, daughter of the Margrave of Turin.
That incident assured him of support from all over the empire, and in June he won an overwhelming victory that resulted in the surrender of the Saxons. A number of cardinals joined Clement, and, feeling that he had won a complete victory, the emperor returned to Germany. In addition, his second wife, Praxedis of Kiev—whom he had married in after the death of Bertha in —left him, bringing serious charges against him.
Following protests by high church dignitaries, he dropped his plan, but his mercurial behaviour incurred the displeasure of the reformers. After attacking Rome in vain in andhe conquered the city in March Yet the Normans were considered usurpers and enemies of the Holy Roman Empire.
In his stead, they elected Rudolf, duke of Swabia, in Marchwhereupon Henry confiscated the duchies of Bavaria and Swabia on behalf of the crown.View Notes - Henry IV, Lecture 3 from ENGL 15 at University of California, Santa Barbara.
English 15, Spring Introduction to Shakespeare 1 Henry IV Class 3. Shakespeare 1 Henry IV Topics for. Henry IV’s reign is marred by his own guilt over Richard’s death, civil war, and the gnawing fear that his son Hal is a total wastrel unworthy of the throne.
In this scene from the Shakespeare history play, Henry IV (Jeremy Irons) lectures his son, Prince Hal (Tom Hiddleston), on his poor and unprincelike conduct.
Henry IV: Henry IV, duke of Bavaria (as Henry VIII; –61), German king (from ), and Holy Roman emperor (–/06), who engaged in a long struggle with Hildebrand (Pope Gregory VII) on the question of lay investiture (see Investiture Controversy), eventually drawing excommunication on himself and.
This lecture traces the theatrical "ancestry" of Falstaff, who in Shakespeare's version becomes the bringer of holiday, the prime subverter of the con Henry IV—The Life of Falstaff | The Great Courses Plus.
Lecture 11 in the Approaching Shakespeare series. Henry IV part 1 | University of Oxford Podcasts - Audio and Video Lectures Over free audio and video lectures, seminars and teaching resources from Oxford University. Henry IV, Part I Third lecture “Depose me?” Power and legitimacy Can Henry find legitimacy for his usurped kingship?
“So shaken as we are, so wan with care” How to legitimate his rule: his desire for “new broils” in a world that might sacralize his reign. Against the abomination, impiety of civil war (ll.